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上海交通大学出版社 第二册 应用型研究生英语系列教材 A Practical English Course for Postgraduate Students A Practical English Course for Postgraduate Students.image
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2 上海交通大学出版社 第二册 应用型研究生英语系列教材 A Practical English Course for Postgraduate Students A Practical English Course for Postgraduate Students.
3 上海交通大学出版社 2 BackNext Unit 1 Unit Three Table of Contents Reading Speaking Translation Writing.
4 上海交通大学出版社 3 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 1.
central planning Central planning refers to a planned economy or directed economy.
It is an economic system in which the state or workers councils manage the economy and the central government makes all decisions on the production and consumption of goods and services.
Its most extensive form is referred to as a command economy, centrally planned economy, or command and 二元期權 control economy.
In such economies, central economic planning by the state or government is so extensive that it controls all major sectors of the economy and formulates all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income.
The planners decide what should be produced and direct enterprises to produce those goods.
To be continued.
5 上海交通大学出版社 4 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A Planned economies are in contrast to unplanned economies, such as a market economy, where production, distribution, pricing, and investment decisions are made by the private owners of the factors of production 生产要素 based upon their own interests rather than upon furthering some overarching macroeconomic plan.
A planned economy may consist of state- owned enterprises, private enterprises directed by the state, or a combination of both.
Gosplan Gosplan or State Planning Committee was the committee responsible for economic planning in the Soviet Union.
The word Gosplan is an abbreviation for Gosudarstvenny Planovy Komitet, which means State Planning Committee.
One of its main duties was the creation of Five-Year Plans.
Gosplan was headquartered at the building now occupied by the State Duma, in Moscow.
6 上海交通大学出版社 5 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 3.
Wall Street Wall Street is a street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States.
It runs east from Broadway to South Street on the East River, through the historical center of the Financial District.
It is the first permanent home of the New York Stock Exchange 纽约证券交易所 ; over time Wall Street became the name of the surrounding geographic neighborhood.
Wall Street is also shorthand or a metonym for the influential financial interests of the American financial industry, which is centered in the New York City area.
Several major U.
stock and other exchanges remain headquartered on Wall Street and in the Financial District, including the NYSE, NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System 纳斯达克股指 , AMEX American Stock Exchange 美国证券交易所 , NYMEX New York Mercantile Exchange 纽约商业交易所 , and NYBOT New York Board of Trade 纽约期货交易所.
7 上海交通大学出版社 6 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 4.
the City of London The City of London is a geographically small city within Greater London in England.
It is the historic core of London around which, along with Southwark and then Westminster, the modern conurbation grew.
The City s boundaries have remained almost constant since the Middle Ages, and hence it is now only a tiny part of the much larger London metropolis.
It is often referred to as the City or the Square Mile, as it is just over one square mile 1.
90 km in area.
These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom s financial services industry, which is based here.
8 上海交通大学出版社 7 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 5.
America s Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve System also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed is the central banking system of the United States.
It was created in 1913 by the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act.
The Federal Reserve is regarded as a quasi-public banking system, since it has aspects of both a government-run system and private enterprise.
The structure of the central banking system in the United States is unique compared to others in the world, in that an entity outside of the central bank creates the currency.
This other entity is the United States Department of the Treasury.
9 上海交通大学出版社 8 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 6.
hedge fund 对冲基金 A hedge fund is an investment fund open to a limited range of investors that is permitted by regulators to undertake a wider range of investment and trading activities than other investment funds, and that, in general, pays a performance fee to its investment manager.
Every hedge fund has its own investment strategy that determines the type of investments and the methods of investment it undertakes.
Hedge funds, as a class, invest in a broad range of investments including shares, debt and commodities.
As the name implies, hedge funds often seek to hedge some of the risks inherent in their investments using a variety of advanced investment strategies, most notably short selling and derivatives, in both domestic and international markets with the goal of generating high returns.
Nowadays, hedge funds use dozens of different strategies, so it isn t accurate to say that hedge funds just hedge risk.
In fact, because hedge fund managers make speculative investments, these funds can carry more risk than the overall market to maximize return on investment.
10 上海交通大学出版社 9 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 7.
bank run 银行挤兑 A bank run also known as a run on the bank occurs when a large number of bank customers withdraw their deposits to avoid losing their money, because they believe the bank is, or might become, insolvent.
As a bank run progresses, it generates its own momentum, in a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy or positive feedback as more people withdraw their deposits, the likelihood of default increases, and this encourages further withdrawals.
This can destabilize the bank to the point where it faces bankruptcy.
A banking panic or bank panic is a financial crisis that occurs when many banks suffer runs at the same time.
A systemic banking crisis is one where all or almost all of the banking capital in a country is wiped out.
The resulting chain of bankruptcies can cause a long economic recession.
Much of the Great Depression s economic damage was caused directly by bank runs.
11 上海交通大学出版社 10 Reading BackNext Reading Passage A 8.
the Nordic countries The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and 二元期權 Åland.
Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, although within the Nordic countries the terms are considered distinct.
The Nordic countries have a combined population of approximately 25 million spread over a land area of 3.
5 million km Greenland accounts for 60 of the total area.9 months ago

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